The United Nations is one of the most influential international organizations that was established in 1945 with the aim of strengthening international peace and promoting cooperation between states. The fundamentals of its activities and structure were developed during the Second World War by members of the anti-Hitler coalition. The title "United Nations" was first used in the United Nations Declaration, signed on January 1, 1942.
Annually, March 2 is celebrated as the day of accession of the Republic of Tajikistan to the United Nations.
On January 29, 1992, during the session of the UN Security Council, a resolution was adopted on admission of the Republic of Tajikistan to the UN as an equal member. Finally, becoming a member of the UN on March 2, 1992, the Republic of Tajikistan laid a solid foundation for the development of its cooperation with the institutes, agencies and specialized organizations of the UN system. At present, the Republic of Tajikistan actively cooperates with the UN in various fields, including ensuring universal peace and stability, combating modern threats and challenges to security, protecting the environment, sustainable development of society, and water management.
The initial years of cooperation with the UN
For a short period of its historical membership in the UN, the Republic of Tajikistan has passed certain stages of relations with the United Nations. At the very beginning, in connection with the internal situation, the priority for Tajikistan was cooperation aimed at achieving peace and stability in the country. The first UN office - the United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT) was opened in Dushanbe on February 1, 1993. The activities of UNMOT ensured the advancement of the peace process in Tajikistan, assisted in peacekeeping efforts and provided urgent humanitarian assistance. In connection with the implementation of the General Agreement on the Establishment of Peace and National Accord, in May 2000, on the initiative of the former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, the United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office in Tajikistan (UNDCP) was established on the basis of UNMOT. The main task of the Bureau was to promote development and strengthening of the political foundations, internal peacebuilding mechanisms, building capacity of the state and society to prevent and resolve conflicts.
In August 2007, the Peacebuilding Support Office in Tajikistan successfully completed its activities. Dozens of participants of this mission were awarded with high awards of the Republic of Tajikistan, and the Tajik model of national reconciliation, with the assistance of the UN and guarantor countries, served as an example of preventive diplomacy for countries with internal conflicts. In addition, since 2008, the Tajik citizens have been joining the international peacekeeping ranks of the UN, which contribute to the achievement of peace in the Darfur region (Sudan). Currently negotiations are ongoing with the Department of Peacekeeping Operations of the United Nations (DPKO) to send officers of the country's security forces to Darfur Sudan.
Cooperation in the field of combating the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons
Tajikistan supports the leading role of the United Nations in combating the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons (SALW), giving great importance to the implementation of the Program of Action for the Prevention and Eradication of Illicit Trade in SALW in all its aspects, strengthening international cooperation to eradicate illicit brokering and illicit production of SALW-s, and ensuring effective management of stocks of the SALW. Tajikistan fully supports the aspiration of the international community to achieve a total ban on anti-personnel mines, fulfills the main provisions of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction (known as an Ottawa Treaty or Mine Ban Treaty), providing the Secretary-General of the United Nations with information on the state of mine risk. The destruction of all anti-personnel mines stocks located in the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan is ensured.
Cooperation in the field of combating terrorism and extremism
Being aware of the threat of international terrorism, extremism and radicalization to society, Tajikistan strongly condemns these phenomena in all its forms and manifestations, and advocates for the consolidation of the international community's efforts at the global, regional and national levels. The fight against modern threats, challenges and transnational crime remains the unifying factor of countries, and in this direction, the UN undoubtedly must play a central and acting role. Without doubt, the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, the UN Security Council resolutions and the UN conventions against terrorism are the basis of the joint fight against terrorism and extremism.
On the way to counter security threats, the Republic of Tajikistan continuously strives for taking appropriate measures at the national and regional levels. Supporting UN Security Council resolutions (1267, 1373, 1540, 1566, 1617, etc.) and the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, Tajikistan closely cooperates with specialized UN agencies in this direction, including the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED) and the UN Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF).
The Republic of Tajikistan fully supported the proposal of the UN Secretary-General to establish a new bureau of this organization – the UN Office of Counter-Terrorism (OCT), which began its activity on June 15, 2017 after the adoption of the relevant UN General Assembly resolution, and is ready to further strengthen its cooperation in this direction.
Taking into account the growing threat of terrorism and extremism in the country and the implementation of the Joint Action Plan of the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, in 2016 the National Strategy of the Republic of Tajikistan on Countering Terrorism and Extremism for 2016-2020 was adopted, the purpose of which is to take measures to prevent and detect crimes of terrorist and extremist nature.
Within the framework of the implementation of this Strategy, in February 2017, the delegation of the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED) visited the Republic of Tajikistan together with the representatives of various international and regional organizations, including the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the International Civil Aviation Organization, the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) and the Eurasian Group.
The purpose of the above mentioned visit was to hold meetings with representatives of state ministries and other authorities to discuss implementation of Security Council resolutions 1373 (2001), 1624 (2005), 1963 (2010) and 2178 (2014), to identify the country's technical assistance needs related to effective implementation of the above-mentioned resolutions, as well as the development of recommendations and proposals for the Tajik side.
It should be specially noted that taking into account the importance of the fight against terrorism and extremism, radicalization and other crimes connected with these phenomena on the basis of instructions of the Founder of Peace and National Unity –Leader of the Nation, the President of the Republic of Tajikistan, H.E. Mr. Emomali Rahmon, Government of the Republic of Tajikistan in cooperation with the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and the European Union with the participation of a wide range of participants from various countries of the world held a High-Level International Conference on “Countering Terrorism and Preventing Violent Extremism” on May 3-4, 2018 in Dushanbe, Tajikistan.
Participants of the Dushanbe Security Conference discussed priority areas for cooperation in international and regional security, examined issues related to the current state and prospects of cooperation between countries and international organizations, stressed the importance of combining and intensifying efforts to combat threats to security, in particular terrorism, extremism and radicalism.
The Republic of Tajikistan is confident that the Dushanbe Conference has served as an important platform for constructive interaction and fruitful communication, and has become a center of attraction for all stakeholders who support the importance of strengthening mechanisms for multilateral cooperation.
Cooperation in the field of fight against illicit trafficking in narcotic substances
The fight against illicit trafficking in narcotic substances is an important area of cooperation between Tajikistan and the United Nations. With the beginning of activities of the regional Office of the United Nations office on drugs and crime (UNODC) with its residence in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, in 1993, Tajikistan has been cooperating with the United Nations in the field of fight against illicit trafficking in narcotic substances and crime.
UNODC is the lead Agency for combating illicit trafficking of narcotic drugs and crime in the world, and operates worldwide through a wide network of field offices. The activities of UNODC in Central Asia are aimed at strengthening the capacity of relevant law enforcement officials to combat illicit drug trafficking and crime, providing technical support, implementing and financing national programmes in this area, as well as analyzing joint actions of Central Asian countries, strengthening and protecting the border in order to prevent the smuggling of narcotic drugs and new psychoactive drugs. UNODC, in cooperation with development partners and other regional and international organizations, is implementing programmes and projects in all Central Asian countries, including Tajikistan. They are aimed at preventing and combating illicit trafficking in narcotic and new psychoactive substances, their precursors, transnational organized crime, terrorism and extremism, trafficking in human beings, treatment of drug dependence, provision of prisoners with favorable conditions in correctional institutions, control over the transport of containers, border protection, capacity-building of relevant Tajik personnel and provision of technical assistance to law enforcement agencies.
The organization carries out a number of programs and projects in the Republic of Tajikistan, including the project “Strengthening of control along the border of Tajikistan and Afghanistan”, the project “Drug control Agency under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan – phase II”, the Regional program for Central Asia (2015-2019), the Regional program for Afghanistan and neighboring countries, the UNPDC world program and the World Customs Organization’s (WCO) program of container traffic control and etc.
Representatives of the country actively participate in various activities of the organization, including meetings of working groups, seminars, trainings and operations. One of the events organized annually by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in cooperation with the Agency for drug control under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan and UNODC is the presentation of the annual review on drug situation in the country. This event is usually also attended by the UNODC regional representative for Central Asia, Ms. Ashita Mittal.
Cooperation in the field of protection of refugees and migrants
Cooperation of the Republic of Tajikistan with the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) began in 1993 at the invitation of the Government to assist in returning the Tajik refugees and internally displaced persons to their places of origin.
Return of the Tajik refugees to their homeland and their smooth reintegration into society is one of the main achievements of cooperation of Tajikistan with the UNHCR. Activities of this organization included implementation and financing of the large-scale construction and reconstruction of houses, hospitals, educational institutions in Khatlon region.
The Republic of Tajikistan was the first country in Central Asia to accede to the Convention of the 1951 and Protocol of the 1967relating to the Status of Refugees, starting to develop a national asylum system. In this connection, from the first days of its activity in Tajikistan, UNHCR cooperates with the Government to create a reliable asylum system, as well as provide protection and assistance to refugees and asylum seekers in Tajikistan.
UNHCR activities in Tajikistan are carried out on the basis of the Agreement on Cooperation between the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan and UNHCR, signed in May 2002.
Established in 1951 as an intergovernmental organization in the field of migration, the International Organization for Migration works in close cooperation with governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental partner organizations. The organization helps in humane and orderly management of migration, supports needy migrants, and also helps in finding a practical solution to problems in this area.
Cooperation of the Tajikistan with the UN in the field of migration is carried out in the framework of the International Organization for Migration (IOM), which started its operations in Tajikistan since 1992, after the acquisition of independence.
In 1994, Tajikistan became a member state of the IOM, and in the same year the Agreement on Cooperation between the Government of the country and this UN agency was signed
Cooperation in economic and humanitarian fields
Realization of the economic and humanitarian components of cooperation between UN and the Government of Tajikistan is carried out through the United Nations development programme (UNDP) in Tajikistan. The UNDP Representation in Tajikistan was established in December 1993, in the same year, the agreement between the Government of Tajikistan and UNDP, which established a legal framework for organization activities was signed. Because of complicated and unstable political, social situation in the country, UNDP activities basically were focused on rendering humanitarian aid that was the immediate response to the needs of the country. The activities were carried out also in the sphere of strengthening of peace and stability, assistance in development of small enterprises and their management. UNDP focused it’s activities on the realities of post conflict time, and reviewed the main projects and programs, when the General agreement on establishing peace and national reconciliation was reached, and country formatted on the way of stable prosperity. The framework agreement originally approved for the period 1999-2000, and further prolonged until 2004, then the previous stage of cooperation between Tajikistan and UNDP determined with the new program for the country in 2005 2009, which was an integral part of the concept of providing assistance to Tajikistan.
Later, the cooperation was established, in accordance with the United Nations Development Action Framework (UNDAF) for the 2010-2015, and the Country Programme Action Plan (CPAP) for the 2010-2015, which were signed on December 16, 2009.
The high responsibility of UNDP and other UN organizations aimed at achieving the strategic priorities of the country is really felt in all stages of cooperation. These priorities are reflected in two important documents adopted by the UN and UNDP, namely the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) for 2016-2020 and the UNDP Country Program for 2016-2020. The UNDAF program (2016-2020) is concentrated in four strategic areas, and its main goal is to achieve a high level of social and economic development in the country. This strategy is based on the following: changing the social structure of the country in favor of the middle stratum of the population, reducing the economic disparity of the population, implementing innovative development based on the modern development of science and technology, rational use of energy resources inside and outside the country, providing a broad transport network, including development transport corridor between the regions, the development of Tajikistan's aviation by establishing regional centers and reducing regional disparities, ensuring e favorable conditions for human development and so on.
The UNDAF budget is more than 400 million US dollars, and is being implemented for the social and economic development of the country through effective governance and rule of law provision of assistance to vulnerable groups of population, ensuring equal access to law and services, improving the well-being of the population by supporting the development of entrepreneurship, new jobs and strengthening the state's capacity to manage crises.
At the same time, UNDP plays an important role in strengthening the country's capacity and resources, expanding its capacity to achieve development goals in the framework of its international commitments, including in the context of the Declaration on Sustainable Development, the National Development Strategy of Tajikistan and medium-term reduction programs poverty and welfare.
Cooperation in the field of health and the problems of children
The cooperation of the Republic of Tajikistan with the World Health Organization (WHO) is carried out within the framework of a number of programs, including such components as: coordination of humanitarian support of international organizations in the health sector, health sector reform, strengthening of maternal and child health, including reproductive health, malaria elimination program, tuberculosis control and HIV / AIDS, blood, non-communicable diseases and mental health, nutrition, food and food security, preparedness to respond to emergencies.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) started its activities in Tajikistan in 1993, from the opening of its Office in Tajikistan and on the basis of the Agreement on Cooperation between the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan and UNICEF. The cooperation is carried out within the framework of a number of programs in the field of child and maternal health, basic quality education, health and youth participation, social policy and child protection reform for the period 2005-2009, based on international commitments such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the Poverty Reduction Strategy, including the priorities of the government of Tajikistan and UNICEF.
UNICEF will continue to implement activities aimed at protecting the rights of children in order to meet their basic needs and expand their opportunities to fully realize their potential, with particular attention to the category of the most vulnerable children.
Cooperation in the field of gender equality
Since the first years of independence, the problem of women's living conditions has always been the focus of attention of the President and the Government of the country. In this regard, the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan, according the political, economic and cultural realities of the country, has created a certain political mechanism to improve the social status of women. In this direction the Republic of Tajikistan cooperates with the structure of UN-Women.
UN-Women, the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women, was established to accelerate the process of meeting the needs of women and girls throughout the world.
In Tajikistan, the UN Women in partnership with the Committee on Women and Family Affairs under the Government of Tajikistan, creates district task forces to provide free legal advice to women, mainly on land and property rights.
In accordance with the Agreement on the national development priorities of the state, in 2016-2020 the UN-Women structure supports the Government of Tajikistan in implementing commitments on gender equality through initiatives to promote rights and economic opportunities, prevent violence against women, strengthen peace, security and gender equality.
Cooperation in the field of agriculture
The UN World Food Program (WFP) started its operations in Tajikistan in 1993, providing emergency assistance to mitigate the consequences of the civil war. Over the period from 1993 to 1999, WFP distributed about 120,000 tons of food aid to the amount of 60 million USD. From July 1999 to July 2001, WFP conducted the first mission to provide ongoing assistance to poor people. More than 52,000 tons of food were distributed through the “Food in return for work” and “School meal” programs and many other projects. In 2003, the main agreement was signed between the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan and the WFP, which built a legal foundation for the activities of the WFP in Tajikistan.
In 1995 to strengthen cooperation in agricultural sector, Tajikistan joined the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Tajikistan cooperates with this organization through FAO Representation in Dushanbe, which was opened on the basis of the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan and FAO (came into force in March 2017). At the outset of its operation in the country, FAO supported Tajikistan in transition of the country to the peaceful life after the civil war, focusing on restoration and development of the agriculture sector, ensuring food and nutrition security.
In addition, Tajikistan has established cooperation with another UN structure in the field of agriculture, namely International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), and this cooperation is carried out through the IFAD Division for Near East, North Africa and Europe.
IFAD operates in the Republic of Tajikistan in the framework of “Livestock and Pasture Development” and “Livestock and Pasture Development - II” projects. The projects are aimed at improving the nutrition and economic status of the targeted households, particularly focusing on institutional, livestock and pasture development and income generation for women in Khatlon region.
In February 2018 a financing agreement between the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan and IFAD on “Community-Based Agricultural Support Project” was signed (total budget is more than 39 million USD) which aims at increasing productivity and expanding access of rural population to services and production infrastructure.
International initiatives of Tajikistan in the framework of the UN General Assembly
1. Initiative of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan on the proclamation of 2003 as the International Year of Fresh water, proposed during the 54th session of the UN General Assembly (October 1, 1999). Based on this initiative, during the 55th Session of the UN General Assembly the year 2003 was declared as the International Year of Fresh Water and International Forum on fresh water was held in Dushanbe (29 August – 1 September 2003).
2. Initiative of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan on the proclamation of 2005-2015 International Decade for Action "Water for Life". In accordance with the Dushanbe Declaration, on December 23, 2003, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution and declared 2005-2015 the International Decade for Action "Water for Life".
3. Declaration of the year 2013 as the International Year of Water Cooperation.
In 2013, the international community recognized the UN General Assembly Resolution 67/204 on the International Year of Water Cooperation, initiated by the Republic of Tajikistan. On February 11, 2013, the ceremony of announcing the International Year of Water Cooperation was held at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris, in which the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Tajikistan took part and had speech.
4. Proposal of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan to announce 2018 - 2028 years International Decade for Action "Water for Sustainable Development". On December 21, 2016, the UN General Assembly adopted the relevant resolution and declared 2018-2028 the International Decade for Action "Water for Sustainable Development". This initiative was originally put forward by the Leader of Peace and National Unity - the Leader of the Nation, the President of the Republic of Tajikistan on April 12, 2015 at the World Water Forum in Daegu, Republic of Korea.
The initiative was adopted by the UN General Assembly as a result of the adoption of the resolution (A-/- RES-/-71/222). According to this resolution (OP3), the period from 2018 to 2028 was declared the International Decade for Action "Water for Sustainable Development", which starts from 22 March 2018 and ends on 22 March 2028.
In June 2018, following the official launch of the beginning of the Decade in New York, on the day of World Water Day (22 March), 20-22 June 2018 in Dushanbe there was held a High-Level International Conference on the Implementation of the International Decade for Action "Water for Sustainable Development, 2018-2028" with the participation of high-level representatives of the UN member states, international and regional organizations and other interested parties. During this Conference, a wide range of issues related to water resources was considered. The results of the Conference gave a new impetus to the process of realizing the above-mentioned decade. In addition, the Dushanbe Conference, which took place on the eve of the next meeting of the United Nations High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (July 9-18, 2018), which addressed the Sixth Goal of Sustainable Development, has become a timely and important basis for the development of specific recommendations to strengthen measures on the achievement of water-related goals and objectives. At the end of the Conference there was adopted its outcome document – Dushanbe Declaration.