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Concept of the Foreign Policy of the Republic of Tajikistan


Approved by the Decree
of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan
on 27 January 2015, №332

 

 

CONCEPT
of the Foreign Policy of the Republic of Tajikistan

 

1. General Provisions

1.1. The Concept of the foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan (hereinafter «the Concept») is a political act, which determines and regulates major principles, objectives, obligations and priority directions of the foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan based on the long-term national interests of the country.  

1.2. Elaboration and adoption of the Concept is necessitated by the specification of goals, tasks and directions of the foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan in terms of transformations of political, social, economic and cultural life of the country and formation of a new geopolitical image in the world and the region in the second decade of the XXI century. The Concept provides for elaboration and pursuance of the foreign policy that facilitates an adaptation of a progress of the country with increasing processes of integration, regionalization and globalization, creates new auspicious facilities to prevent and curb potential risks and challenges threatening national security and lays down a solid ground for consistent realization of national interests based on objectiveness and balance.   

1.3. The legal framework of the Concept consists of the Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan, laws and statutory-legal acts regulating activity of the state authorities of the country in the sphere of the foreign policy and as well as comprised of international legal instruments recognized by the Republic of Tajikistan.

1.4. Republic of Tajikistan reaffirming its commitment to international accepted legal acts, carries out its foreign policy on the basis of the following principles:

recognition of equality, respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, inviolability of borders, non-use or threat of force in international relations, commitment to the peaceful solution of disputes and conflicts and non-interference in the internal affairs of each other;

respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms;

fulfillment of obligations arising from international law;

observance of the rule of international law in international relations;

deideologization of interstate relations, establishment and intensification of equal and mutually beneficial relationship with countries all over the world;

non-acceptance of any form of violation of human rights in the international practice.

1.5. The Concept reflects national interests of the Republic of Tajikistan in the field of the foreign policy, which at present and in the near future consist of the following:

-protection and strengthening of the national independence of Tajikistan and its national security; establishment of security belt and good neighborliness along the borders of the country;

-enhancement of relations of confidence, friendship and cooperation with countries all over the world based on mutual interests;

-creation of favorable conditions for economic, social and cultural development and the gradual improvement of the living standard of the people and reinforcement of economic security of the country;

-promotion of energy independence of Tajikistan, food security and a break-up of the country's communication deadlock;

- protection of the rights and freedoms, dignity and interests of citizens of Tajikistan inside and outside the country;

-     reinforcement of the positive image of Tajikistan in the world as a democratic, secular and legal state;

- assistance to constructive and legitimate activities of Tajik societies and associations of compatriots in other countries.

2. Republic of Tajikistan in the System of International Relations

2.1. The realities of the second decade of the XXI century evidence that international relations are still in transition and the system of multipolar world is still emerging. Deep political and economic changes emerge on the geopolitical landscape of the modern world that is fraught with the transformation of international relations.

2.2. Ever-increasing process of globalization is recognized as the most important peculiarity of the present time. This process, along with the stimulation of closer links between peoples and nations and setting up all-embracing system of political and economic, scientific and cultural connections, it may simultaneously cause undesirable effects, such as increasing a gap between developed and underdeveloped countries, the increase in pressure on the national and cultural values ​​of the peoples and etc. Moreover, under immediate impact of globalization processes modern threats and challenges gained global significance and became a factor of concern of humanity. These threats and challenges are grouped as follows:

- uneven development and economic inequality, increasing competition for access to world markets and strategic resources, deepening financial and economic crises;

- growth of international terrorism, drug trafficking and weapons smuggling, transnational organized crime;

- rise of political and religious extremism, ethnic and racial conflicts, civilization and ideological clashes;

- domestic and regional conflicts, fanaticism and ethnic and racial separatism, escalation of political tensions in different parts and regions of the world;

- intensification of demographic problems, poverty and indigence, unemployment and massive uncontrolled migration;

-  lack or deficit of essential material resources, above all water and nutrition;

-  climate change, ecological and sanitary-epidemiological challenges.

2.3. Along with these challenges which threaten security of the system of international relations, including the security of the Republic of Tajikistan as an integral part of this system, there are also the following regional factors that are known as hazardous to the national interests of the Republic of Tajikistan:

- in virtue of its geographical location, Republic of Tajikistan’s location in the spotlight of the geopolitical interests of the modern world;

- Tajikistan’s proximity to conflict-prone regions, to sources of terrorism, fundamentalists’ training centers and drug production zones;

-  expansion of terrorist and extremist groups, fundamentalist parties and movements in the region;

- probability to use territory of the country for cross-border drug trafficking and dissemination of extremist ideology;

-  unresolved issues of delimitation and demarcation of borders between the countries of the region and probability of an eruption of conflict among ethnic groups and peoples in the region;

-  presence of various types of obstacles towards efficient regional integration, free movement of people and unhindered movement of goods and services;

-  lack of genuine cooperation in the effective water and energy resources management  in the region;

- exacerbation of demographic and environmental challenges in the region and their possible use to create tension in the country.

The foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan will be developed and implemented taking into account the current global threats and challenges and regional factors.

2.4. Prevailing and the major task of the foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan in the long term is to protect the supreme interests of the state in the international arena that will be implemented by means of building external favorable conditions for overall sustainable development, strengthening foundations of national independence and sovereignty of Tajikistan and continued efforts to reach agreement and respect of mutual interests with foreign states and international organizations in the course of an implementation of foreign policy priorities of the country.

2.5. To achieve this goal, Republic of Tajikistan will implement an independent multi-vector foreign policy that meets the supreme state and national interests aiming at building friendly and mutually beneficial relations with other countries based on unconditional respect for international law.

2.6. Taking into account geopolitical position of the Republic of Tajikistan, given natural and demographic resources and the rate of its socio-economic development, country's foreign policy will be pursued based on the principles of objectiveness and pragmatism. It is inseparably linked with economic needs of the country and is aimed at strengthening and expansion of trade and economic collaboration of the Republic of Tajikistan in the system of global economic relations and political and diplomatic support of the country's economic interests.

2.7. The foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan is known as "open doors", peace-seeking and objective policy in the course of pursuance of which Tajikistan stands ready to build up friendly relations with all countries and recognize shared interests based on reciprocal respect, equality and mutually beneficial cooperation.

2.8. The foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan is a transparent and predictable policy which is based on the principle of recognition and commitment of the country to international treaties and generally accepted rules of international law.

2.9. The foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan in its inter-state relations with neighboring countries and the region pursues a policy of friendship, good neighborliness and non-intervention in the internal affairs of each other, which is aimed at creating a confidence and security belt along the borders of the country. This policy aims to the peaceful resolution of all outstanding matters, including border, water and energy issues through dialogue and negotiations based on mutual understanding of parties concerned and respect of the principle of equal and indivisible security in the region.

2.10. Taking into account progressive development of the processes of political and economic multilateral and multi-level integration in the system of international relations, the foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan aims to ensure active participation of the country in international and regional organizations, whereby Tajikistan intends to noticeably contribute to the strengthening of security, stability, cooperation and constructive international dialogue and take advantage of these organizations to ensure sustainable development of the country.

2.11. Based on expansion of important geopolitical regional, international and globalization processes of the modern world, Republic of Tajikistan in practice acknowledges a balance between globalization processes and the national interests of each country, respect for the sovereignty and independence of any state, creation of equal opportunities, formation of overall security system and promotion of decent conditions for each state and the people, regardless of its potential, role and importance in the geopolitical distribution of resources as the most important and vital rules of the world order. Tajikistan is convinced that globalization and national interests should complement each other and provide a reliable guarantee for sustainable development of international relations.

2.12. The Republic of Tajikistan is in favor that emerging new world system should completely be free from wars and conflicts, cruelty and violence, religious and cultural fanaticism and xenophobia and be based on equal cooperation and partnership of all countries in the world, and all sorts of threats to international and regional peace and stability must be eliminated by consensus and constructive dialogue on the basis of international law, primarily the UN Charter as the principal organization governing international relations.

2.13. The Republic of Tajikistan supports establishment of effective mechanisms of the consonance of national interests and international efforts, consolidation of aspirations of all states to the cause of the formation of adequate measures to resist modern threats and challenges. At the national level, Tajikistan undertakes political, legal, informative, socio-economic and specific measures with the view to strengthening key aspects of the foreign policy in countering international terrorism, extremism, illegal drug trafficking, weapons smuggling, religious fanaticism, illegal migration, environmental risks, climate change and threats to information and food security.

3. Foreign Policy Priorities of the Republic of Tajikistan

The Republic of Tajikistan identifies and implements its foreign policy priorities based on objectives of the state and supreme national interests.

Geopolitical and geo-economic features of today's world predetermine that priorities should regularly be reviewed. They may be subject to change based on the level and the content of relationship of the Republic of Tajikistan with individual states or group of states, international and regional organizations, as well as due to the national and state needs.

3.1. Bilateral Diplomacy (Bilateral Relations)

The Republic of Tajikistan believes that long-term and stable relations with its traditional partners – members of the Commonwealth of Independent States meets its political, economic and cultural interests and taking into account a concept of diverse and multi-level integration within the Commonwealth it will seek to deepen mutually beneficial cooperation with the members of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Given the position of the Russian Federation in the world and the region, intensification and strengthening of traditionally friendly relations and strategic partnership with this country is of particular importance for the Republic of Tajikistan.

Extension of relations with the Russian Federation on the basis of equality and mutually beneficial cooperation in political, defense, military-technical, economic, trade, investment, labor migration, science and education, information, cultural and other areas meets national interests of the Republic of Tajikistan and is considered to be an important factor of regional peace and stability.

Neighboring states in the countries of the region are prioritized in the system of international relations of the Republic of Tajikistan.

Tajikistan supports further promotion of centuries-old and friendly coexistence of the peoples of Central Asia.

The importance and necessity of equal and mutually beneficial, selfless and strong relationship are the determining factors in relations with the Republic of Uzbekistan.

The Republic of Tajikistan in its policy will always adhere to the principle of mutual respect, constructive cooperation and goodwill in respect of this neighboring state.

Common goals and challenges the countries of the region are facing, determine the need to expand and deepen relations with Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan on the basis of confidence, friendship and mutually beneficial cooperation.

The Republic of Tajikistan believes interaction and extensive regional integration is an important toolkit to address economic, social and environmental challenges and build lasting peace and genuine stability in Central Asia.

Increased cooperation with Ukraine, Republic of Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Republic of Azerbaijan, Georgia and Republic of Armenia is one of the most important objectives of the foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan. Continued and sustainable development of these countries since the onset of a new millennium has enabled necessary conditions to achieve this goal.

Strengthening good-neighborly and friendly relations and mutually beneficial cooperation with People’s Republic of China is one of the most important dimensions of the foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan in the Asian sector. These relationships thanks to the will and efforts of both sides assumed a significance of strategic partnership and created a favorable ground for the progressive build-up of comprehensive cooperation in political, security, military-technical, trade, economic and cultural areas.

The Republic of Tajikistan is in favor of a quick restoration of lasting peace in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and affirms that enduring peace, security and political stability of the neighboring state meets its national interests.

The Republic of Tajikistan supports the efforts of the international community and the Afghan government aimed at a comprehensive solution of the Afghan conflict and the economic rehabilitation of the country's transition to a self-sufficient Afghanistan and based on historical, linguistic and cultural affinities between the two nations considers the deepening of multifaceted mutually beneficial cooperation with this friendly and neighboring country as a priority of its foreign policy.

Factor of historical, linguistic and cultural community plays essential role in relations of the Republic of Tajikistan with the Islamic Republic of Iran.

The Republic of Tajikistan will further continue to expand strong relations of friendship and mutually beneficial cooperation with this country on the basis of bilateral and multilateral formats.

Acceleration of the process of economic reform in Tajikistan and the gradual integration of the national economy in the global economic system determines progressive development of political, economic and cultural ties with highly developed countries of the world.

Adoption and the use of experience of these countries in economy, social, science and technology, culture and cutting-edge technology will contribute to further political and economic prosperity of the Republic of Tajikistan.

The Republic of Tajikistan taking into account enormous authority and the role of the United States of America in global politics and economy will continue to make efforts to boost multifaceted ties with this country and sustain strong partnership relations based on the principle of shared interests.

With due account of the rapid pace of development and the growing international importance of the North, Central and South America, in particular Canada, Republic of Cuba, United Mexican States, Federal Republic of Brazil and Argentine Republic, Tajikistan attaches an increasing importance on these countries, and consequently, establishment of fruitful cooperation with these nations meets its national interests.

A positive breakthrough has occurred in the relationship between Tajikistan and the European Union since the beginning of the XXI century and this trend is increasing with every passing year.

In view of promoting development of the major areas of the national economy, Tajikistan acknowledges the European Union as one of its most important economic partners and will continue to seek expansion and deepening of the long-term sustainable cooperation with this influential interstate association on the basis of the principle of shared benefit.

This interaction in general will embrace all European institutions, including European Parliament, Council of Europe, European Investment Bank and other organizations and agencies.

Meanwhile, strengthening and reinforcement of bilateral multifaceted cooperation with the European countries, including Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, French Republic, Italian Republic, Kingdom of Spain, Swiss Confederation, Kingdom of Belgium, Republic of Austria, Czech Republic, Republic of Poland and the Baltic states is of paramount importance for the Republic of Tajikistan.

The Republic of Tajikistan in order to penetrate into emerging markets of capital, technology, raw materials and industrial products is committed to strengthen mutually beneficial relations with the countries of Southeast Asia, including Japan, Republic of Korea, Kingdom of Thailand, Republic of Indonesia, Malaysia, Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Singapore and other countries of the region considering this trend as one of the most important guidelines in its foreign policy. The state of bilateral relations with these countries creates an enabling opportunity to achieve this goal.

The Republic of Tajikistan is keen to expand multifaceted cooperation with Japan as a reliable partner and donor-country and is committed to further develop relations with country, both directly and through international financial institutions.

The Republic of Tajikistan welcomes an intensification of mutually beneficial cooperation with the Republic of Turkey in different areas, including attraction of Turkish investments into the economy of Tajikistan.

Taking into account the role and influence of the Republic of India in the region and the world, given a centuries-old experience of historical and cultural ties of the Tajik and Indian peoples, as well as its tremendous economic and technological capabilities, Tajikistan will gradually expand and deepen multifaceted cooperation with India.

Strengthening political interaction and growth of fruitful economic cooperation with the Islamic Republic of Pakistan with regard to its trade and economic opportunities and geo-strategic position has a special meaning for the Republic of Tajikistan.

In view of the interests of the Arab States of the Gulf, including Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, State of Qatar, State of Kuwait and United Arab Emirates to investing in economic projects of national and regional significance in Tajikistan, the Republic of Tajikistan seeks to deepen mutually beneficial cooperation with the countries of the Gulf. In order to strengthen relations with the Arab world, Tajikistan remains committed to bolster cooperation with regional organizations, in particular with the League of Arab States.

Considering international prestige and importance of the Arab Republic of Egypt in regional and world politics, the Republic of Tajikistan is interested to expand cooperative relationship with this country.

The Republic of Tajikistan considers African continent as a promising guideline for the fruitful cooperation in different areas.

In this context, the Republic of Tajikistan will exert efforts to establish cooperative links with the Arab countries of North Africa - Kingdom of Morocco, People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, Republic of Tunisia, State of Libya and the countries of central and southern parts of this continent, particularly South Africa Republic and Republic of Mozambique.

In the Pacific direction there new opportunities are being opened up on the example of Australia and New Zealand for the increased collaborative relations in many areas. The use of these opportunities is one of the most important foreign policy objectives of the Republic of Tajikistan.

3.2. Multilateral Diplomacy (Multilateral Relations)

In terms of rapid increase in the globalization process and progressive deepening of political and economic integration in the world, multilateral cooperation with international and regional organizations and institutions is a priority of the foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan.

The Republic of Tajikistan recognizes these organizations and institutions as an important mechanism for advancing joint efforts to combat modern threats and challenges, as unique platform for the resolution of disputes and problems in international relations and as an effective tool for promoting international peace and stability. In order to contribute to the formation of a new and equitable system of international and regional relations, as well as to protect and promote its own national interests, Republic of Tajikistan takes an active part in the activity of these institutions.

In this context, relationship with the United Nations, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Commonwealth of Independent States, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Collective Security Treaty Organization, Organization of Islamic Cooperation, Economic Cooperation Organization, Asian Cooperation Dialogue, Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia and the international financial institutions is priority.

The Republic of Tajikistan is in favor of strengthening the coordinating role of the United Nations in the XXI century and recognizes the UN as the sole institute regulating international relations authorized to make decisions related to collective actions to protect peace and maintain security of the international system.

The Republic of Tajikistan believes that with the view of an adaptation of the UN actions to the needs and realities of today's world, a comprehensive reform of the United Nations, including its Security Council is the call of the times.

Protection of national interests and the active promotion of productive initiatives and proposals of the Republic of Tajikistan in the United Nations, its specialized agencies, as well as efforts aimed at obtaining membership of the Republic of Tajikistan in the principal bodies of the UN are one of the key objectives of the foreign policy of the country.

The Republic of Tajikistan considers comprehensive cooperation with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in compliance with its national interests and intends to efficiently use resources of this organization as a platform to demonstrate spiritual and cultural achievements of the Tajik people, as well as protect and revive its tangible heritage.

The Republic of Tajikistan is supportive of increased cooperation with the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and its institutions and intends to make good use of their expertise, political and intellectual capability in the democratization of society, protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms, security and stability and addressing economic and environmental challenges.

Participation in the activities of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and the strengthening of cooperation with the States Parties is one of the priorities of the foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan. Tajikistan highly values the role of the CIS in the preservation and development of traditional relations between States Parties on a new platform based on the concept of multi-level integration.

The Republic of Tajikistan considers the establishment of different bodies of economic and security integration under the umbrella of the CIS, such as the Eurasian Economic Union, Common Economic Space, Customs Union, Collective Security Treaty Organization as a genuine manifestation of the integration processes in the post-Soviet space and will contribute to their development and improvement. Furthermore, considering national interests and with the view of exploitation of their potential and opportunities for the country's needs it will facilitate development and reinforcement of these processes.

The active participation of the Republic of Tajikistan in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization aims to strengthen good-neighborly ties, relations of confidence and friendship among the Member States and observers of the Organization, as well as security and stability and sustainable development in the region. Tajikistan stands for the further growth of authority and the role of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization in the deepening of economic relations, implementation of infrastructural projects and promotion of cooperation in the field of environmental protection and enhancement of cultural dialogue for the sake of the regional integration.

The Republic of Tajikistan viewing historical, cultural, civilization and religious commonality with Islamic countries unwaveringly supports fruitful cooperation with the Organization of Islamic Cooperation and its institutions. Tajikistan due to the vital and urgent need to uplift prosperity and development of the Islamic world into a new level and eliminate existing and urgent hardships, considers it appropriate to develop and implement Development Strategy of the Islamic Countries, whose key objective should be quality, steady and balanced economic, spiritual and cultural growth of the OIC Member States.

The Republic of Tajikistan in its foreign policy places a primary emphasis on the strengthening fruitful cooperation with the Economic Cooperation Organization and acknowledges it as a regional organization with a specific geostrategic importance and enormous economic potential.

The Republic of Tajikistan is committed to help revitalize and extend the Organization's activities in terms of an implementation of regional projects in economic, trade, transport, communications and energy fields.

The Republic of Tajikistan is committed to contribute to consolidation of efforts to address the crucial issues of the Asian continent, intensify and enrich a content of interaction within the framework of the Asian Cooperation Dialogue and to reinforce its role.

The Republic of Tajikistan among agreed areas of cooperation within the framework of the Asian Cooperation Dialogue attaches paramount importance to poverty reduction, environmental protection, sustainable access of the population of the Asian continent to basic needs, improving people’s preparedness for disaster risks management, expansion and deepening of regional and inter-regional platform for cooperation in the energy sector.

The Republic of Tajikistan fully supporting the idea of building confidence and security belt in Asia and enhancement of productive cooperation in this area shall undertake necessary measures to improve its relations with the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA).

Tajikistan values the opportunity of the Conference essential in collective exploration of tools and remedies to address the challenges and eliminate transnational and cross-border risks on the continent and strengthen cohesion between the participating States.

The Republic of Tajikistan values intensification of inclusive interaction with its partners to strengthen national and state security as one of the priorities of its foreign policy and considers its membership in the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) in compliance with the national interests. The activity of the Republic of Tajikistan in the Organization is aimed at the establishment of effective mechanisms to address modern threats and challenges.

In this context, the country's membership in the Organization, along with the presence of the military base of the Russian Federation in the Republic of Tajikistan is one of the prominent factors of ensuring national security and the maintenance of stability in the region.

Tajikistan being a party to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s (NATO) "Partnership for Peace" Program considers it important to interact with the Organization in order to promote security and stability and build an atmosphere of confidence throughout the Eurasian space.

With the view of implementing priorities of its foreign policy, the Republic of Tajikistan enhances multilateral cooperation with its partners in trilateral and quadrilateral formats and is determined to make good use of these platforms of constructive dialogue for the benefit of strengthening friendly relations and cultural connections and identification of effective toolkit to counter new threats and challenges.

3.3. Economic Diplomacy

Rapid geo-economic evolution of contemporary world and global economic trends predetermine ever-growing importance of economic diplomacy and continued improvement of the economic aspects of the role of topical issues in international policy. In this regard, efficient and reasonable use of means and tools of economic diplomacy is one of the priorities of Tajikistan's foreign policy strategy that would facilitate achievement of national and public goals.

In this context, attraction of foreign investment, integration of the Republic of Tajikistan in the regional and global economy and promotion of economic security of the country are essential to stimulate economy.

With the aim to encourage bilateral and multilateral foreign economic relations and lead international economic cooperation it is necessary to implement the following tasks:

- protect economic interests of the Republic of Tajikistan in the system of international economic relations, security and strengthening of the national actors access into the orbit of world economic relations and their effective functioning in this space;

- create external favorable conditions for the strengthening and expansion of the economic potential of the economic ground of the country;

- set up co-operation aimed at improvement of the regulatory framework of the "green economy" through cutting-edge expertise and the availability of the country's favorable conditions and implement mutually beneficial international cooperation in this field;

- facilitates the country’s connectivity to the international and regional transport, energy and communication basis;

- build favorable trading opportunities and protect the interests of domestic business within the framework of international economic relations;

-  attract foreign investment, government and commercial companies of other countries and compatriots living abroad to participate in the implementation of large-scale infrastructural, energy and transport projects of regional significance;

-  promote active participation in the World Trade Organization with the view to protect and promote national interests in the global trade and economic arena;

-  encourage multifaceted cooperation with the regional economic commissions of the United Nations, UN donor agencies to facilitate an implementation of national development strategies aiming to create a solid ground for sustainable development of the country;

- deepen cooperation with international and regional financial institutions, including the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, Asian Development Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Islamic Development Bank, Eurasian Development Bank and European Investment Bank and the others in order to promote the country's access to soft credits and grant financial resources;

- promote trade and economic ties with neighboring countries as an element of trust and security zone along the borders of the country.

3.4. Water Cooperation Diplomacy

Due to a population growth, expansion of agricultural land, irrational use of water resources, climate change and environmental challenges, the issues of lack of drinking water, utilization of large and small transboundary rivers and other water related issues turned into a factor that highly affect international relations.

On this point, Central Asia is one of the sensitive regions and Tajikistan as a country with abundant water resources advocates fair and efficient use of these resources through regional and international cooperation. It believes that continued promotion of water cooperation diplomacy is the only tool for tackling water related issues. In particular, continuation of regional cooperation within the framework of the International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea seems to remain important.

The Republic of Tajikistan in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and international law has the right to use its natural resources, including water to ensure the country's sustainable development and decent living conditions for its people.

The Republic of Tajikistan applies this right with regard to the use of water resources on the basis of shared regional interests, building on the principles of good neighborliness, respect and genuine mutual interests, inclusive dialogue and cooperation to respond to the existing challenges. Tajikistan as the upstream country and main source of water resources in Central Asia will never create obstacles under any circumstances to the water supply in the region. Acknowledging this principal stance, promotion of energy independence and efforts to address challenges in this area in the spirit of equal partnership and regional cooperation is set forth as one of the priorities of foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan.  

The Republic of Tajikistan is consciously carrying out water cooperation diplomacy and leads a goal to play a decisive role in resolving water-related issues on the world stage. This diplomacy in the light of constructive initiatives in the water sector ("The International Year of Fresh Water, 2003", "International Decade of Action "Water for Life", 2005-2015", "The International Year of Water Cooperation, 2013") that have been welcomed and supported by the international community, stipulates an implementation of new initiatives within the framework of regional and international organizations, particularly under the United Nations.

The purpose of these steps is to notice the need for and promoting the ideas of productive interaction in addressing water challenges in order to preserve the life and prosperity of human civilization.

In this connection, one of the priorities of the foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan is to ensure the country's leading role in water issues in the region and in the international arena, which corresponds to the national interests and aspirations of the international community.

3.5. Cultural and Humanitarian Diplomacy

Growing trend of globalization has unprecedentedly expanded close relations between nations and countries that enable ample opportunities for the access of humanity to the latest and valuable achievements ​​of civilization and the use of yields of creative thoughts of the people.

Along with this, material and spiritual problems of mankind gain a global significance, which cause an increase in pressure on the national cultural traditions and values ​​of the people and an outbreak of a clash of civilizations.

Under these circumstances, realization of cultural and humanitarian diplomacy, which taking into account positive and negative trends of globalization it provides spiritual existence, protection and preservation of indigenous national and cultural values ​​of the Tajik people, promotion of decent introduction of the Republic of Tajikistan on the international scene as a country with ancient history and culture and as the modern democratic and legal state, expansion of cultural and humanitarian cooperation with the countries all over the world to ensure positive perception of Tajikistan and its people are determined as one of the priorities of the foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan.

Achieving the objectives of cultural and humanitarian diplomacy necessitates Tajikistan to implement the following tasks of its foreign policy:

- improvement of the legal framework of cultural ties with foreign countries and regional and international organizations;

- protection of the rights, interests and dignity of citizens, including migrant workers of the Republic of Tajikistan abroad via establishing overarching framework and expansion of consular offices of the Republic of Tajikistan in regions where nationals of the country reside;

- cultural, humanitarian, educational and legal support of compatriots abroad on the basis of international law and international treaties of the Republic of Tajikistan, promotion of associations of compatriots abroad and the protection of ethnic and cultural identity, including native language within the laws of the countries of their residence;

- promotion of constructive activity of the Forum of Tajiks and Persian-speaking nations to the cause of strengthening ties with foreign nationals, application of their potential and might for the development of political, economic, spiritual and cultural interaction, creating an atmosphere of interest and friendly relationship of the international community and international political circles with Tajikistan and its people;

- with the aim to bolster development of international tourism and attract tourists to the country, delivery of assistance to creating appropriate conditions for the stay and visits of foreign citizens to Tajikistan;

- facilitate the establishment of interfaith dialogue with an emphasis on historical experience and contribution of Tajiks to the formation of religious and civilization tolerance.

3.6. Information Diplomacy

Due to unprecedented progress in technology and the latest advances in information and telecommunications in the second decade of the XXI century, traditional notion of distance and temporal space undergone radical changes and a new manifestation of civilization – information is formed.

A fulcrum of information civilization is consisted of unlimited publication and boundless exchange of information, development of Internet technologies and the expansion of satellite communication, dissemination and broadcast of news and information, as well as formation and development of digital diplomacy.

Under these conditions, global information space is transformed into a foreground of a clash of political, economic and cultural interests of the power centers of the modern world, an effective tool for shaping public opinion and its orientation in the interests of certain groups and circles.

In line with development of the global information space along with positive factors that enable wide access to the latest achievements of civilization, there is a negative trend fraught with a risk for the information security of states, including for the Republic of Tajikistan.

In light of this, information diplomacy of the Republic of Tajikistan has identified promotion of information security as its primary purpose and within the advocacy and implementation of this objective, Tajikistan shall implement the following tasks:

- encourage real and accurate communication to the wider international community perception of domestic and foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan;

- present and promote achievements and prospects of socio-economic development of the country and its cultural and scientific progress;

- promote the country's friendly climate for investment, fruitful economic cooperation and tourism development;

- deliver aid to creating effective means of information impact on foreign public opinion in order to encourage positive recognition of Tajikistan abroad;

- contribute to country’s media empowerment in the international information space;

- establish noticeable international cooperation in the field of information;

- timely and effectively response to cybercrime and information threats on state independence and national interests of the Republic of Tajikistan, historical shrines and spiritual and ethical values ​​of the Tajik people.

Pursuance of information diplomacy of the Republic of Tajikistan shall be based on a broad application of modern information and communication facilities. The Republic of Tajikistan stubbornly adheres to the development of a set of international legal and ethical standards on information security and its full compliance in the global information space.

4. Development and Implementation of the Foreign Policy of the Republic of Tajikistan

The President of the Republic of Tajikistan in accordance with his constitutional authority determines the foreign policy of the country and as head of state represents Republic of Tajikistan in international relations.

Majlisi Milli (Upper Chamber) and Majlisi Namoyandagon (Lower Chamber) of Majlisi Oli (Parliament) of the Republic of Tajikistan under their constitutional powers provide legislation for the implementation of the foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan and the fulfillment of international obligations.

The Government of the Republic of Tajikistan participates in the implementation of foreign policy of the Republic of Tajikistan, promotes the fulfillment of its international obligations and stimulates an introduction of the country in the foreign states and international organizations.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs as an executive body in accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan exercises public administration in the field of external relations of the Republic of Tajikistan with foreign states and international organizations.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs directly implements foreign policy that entrusted with the task to coordinate the activity of government authorities of Tajikistan within the country and abroad on issues associated with the foreign policy. All government authorities carry out their foreign relations through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Tajikistan.

In the course of decision-making processes on the implementation of the foreign policy, public opinion shall be taken into account through an interaction of executive authorities with the Council on Foreign Policy under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan. The Council deliberates on the process of an implementation of the country’s foreign policy, reviews and recommendations aimed at improvement and enhancement of its efficiency.