Strategic goals of Tajikistan: ensuring energy independence, break in the communication deadlock, food security and acceleration industrialization of the country.
The Republic of Tajikistan since gaining state independence has been facing with difficulties that inherited from the Soviet period. Moreover, the country was involved in an imposed civil war, only economic damage of which was 10 billion US dollars.
In line with that, after the collapse of the Soviet Union also the unified economic system of that country fell apart, which presented many economic and social hardships for Tajikistan. Such hardships covered all spheres of country’s economy, in particular energy, industry, transport, agriculture and other spheres. After the safeguarding peace and stability, the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan had to deal with the issue of ensuring sustainable economic development of the country.
Therefore, the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan for the further development of the country has defined three strategic goals of stable development of Tajikistan’s economy, including ensuring energy independence; break in the communication deadlock, food security and acceleration industrialization of the country.
Ensuring energy independence
The Head of state have repeatedly stressed that continuous development of the country’s economy is impossible without energy independence and complete electricity supply of all spheres. In this regard, we should try to use external opportunities for the energy sector, which is considered one of the principal grounds of country’s economy development.
In this priority direction other opportunities and potentials will be used too. In 2009 the Head of state while addressing the Parliament of the country stated that ensuring implementation of various programmes in social and economic spheres and maintenance of economic development at a sustainable level, which proceeds from the National development strategy, depends on solving energy problems and in this direction the following tasks should be fulfilled:
1. Construction of the small, medium and big Hydropower Plants, power transmission lines and establishment of a unified energy system of the country;
2. Through the repair and reconstruction of hydropower facilities and restoration of their capacities, as well as electricity and gas transmission networks, transition to the use of energy-saving technology and ensuring stable development of energy sector;
3. With the use of all resources and opportunities and attraction of foreign and domestic investments during the next three years to meet the country’s demand for natural gas and during the next four years for electricity of domestic manufacture and on this base ensure the energy independence of Tajikistan.
In this direction, with the purpose of exploration of oil and gas basins and deposits and their management by the foreign companies a lot of work is undergo. In particular, with regard to the promotion of drilling, exploration and management of resources, cooperation with the 11 foreign and domestic enterprises and companies in 87 hydrocarbon and oil deposits and fields have been established and 12 different enterprises is working in the sphere of coal production.
The issue of hydropower generation, which Tajikistan has a great opportunity, is of special priority. Taking into account abovementioned, the Government of Tajikistan is keen to ensure the stable development of energy sector. Only in recent 7 years for the initiation of new capacities of power generation, reconstruction and restoration of existing capacities and in general development of energy sector of the country, there have been practically implemented 13 investment projects that their total amount is 12 billion Tajik somonis. At present, implementation of 10 projects, to a total amount of 6 billion Tajik somonis, is undergoing.
The recent years events are construction and commissioning of “Sangtuda 1” Hydropower station, 500 kW power transmission lines “South-North”, 220 kW power transmission lines “Lolazor-Khatlon”, 220 kW power transmission lines of Tajikistan and Afghanistan “Sangtuda-Puli Khumri”, which is an important step towards energy independence of the country. With the purpose of establishment of the unified energy system and to fully meet the domestic demand of the country for electricity, as well as its export to foreign countries, in line with the construction of hydropower stations also a great importance was attached to the provision of transmission infrastructure. Construction of high-voltage power transmission lines “South-North” provided opportunity to establish a unified energy network in Tajikistan. In general, in this period there has been constructed and commissioned more than 4200 km power transmission lines, including 720 km high-voltage power transmission lines more than 110 kW. With the attraction of domestic and foreign investments the implementation of “modernization and reconstruction of Varzob-1 Hydropower station”, “modernization and reconstruction of hydroelectric generator #4 of Sarband Hydropower station” and “Replacement of 220 kW open distributor equipment of Norak Hydropower station” projects, to a total amount of 350 million Tajik somonis, have been completed and these facilities have been commissioned.
At this moment “Sangtuda-2, with the capacity of 220 MW, is fully ready for commissioning and the first stage of heat electro power station, with the capacity of 50MW, will be commissioned in the beginning of 2014.
In this period the power generating capacity of the country, in compare with the pre-independence period, has increased by 928 MW and from 4338MW brought up to 5266 MW.
With the view of providing more support to energy development and cooperation in the sphere, by the Republic of Tajikistan there was proposed an idea of establishment of the international hydropower Consortium in Central Asia, which has not lost his substance up to now. This initiative of the Republic of Tajikistan remains in the field of view of international community and in this regard, while implementing the UN Secretary-Generals initiative “Sustainable energy for all”, the Republic of Tajikistan, alongside with 5 countries all over the world, was presented as a pilot country.
Break in the communication deadlock
Break in the communication deadlock is in line with three strategic goals, which is considered as national responsibility and the important factor of country’s development. This goal is comprises of construction and modernization of motor roads, railroads, bridges, tunnels, terminals (airports) and other transport infrastructures in accordance with the international standards, the implementation of which should step-by-step break the communication deadlock of the country and turn it into a transit zone. Some of the projects of Tajikistan having regional and international character, will ensure access of the country to sea ports and transit highways of other countries.
With the view of achieving this goal, a lot of work, such as construction of roads, bridges, tunnels, reconstruction of transport facilities have been completed or is undergo. Particularly, road tunnels “Sharshar”, “Chormaghzak”, and “Shahriston” have been commissioned; construction and modernization of highways of “Dushanbe-Buston-Chanok”, “Dushanbe-Nurobod-Jirgatol-Saritosh”, “Dushanbe-Danghara” course have been completed. Construction of road tunnel “Istiqlol” is being continued, “Dusti” Road Bridge on “Panj” river have been constructed and commissioned, road courses of “Kulob-Qal’ai Khumb-Khorugh-Qulma”, “Qurghonteppa-Dusti” and other motor roads in various regions of the country, with the participation of Japan, Turkey and Iran, are under construction. Implementation of such projects provided opportunity to improve traveling (movement) of citizens, shipment and transportation of goods and supply of markets with merchandise (products) and dependence on roads that connected separate regions of the country through the neighbouring countries, to be liquidated and interchange of goods with the neighbouring countries to be increased.
It should be noted that implementation of some plans in the framework of this strategic goal have provided great opportunities to the development of the country and its cooperation with countries of the region. For the communication with Afghanistan, there were constructed six bridges, through which traveling (movement) and trade have considerably increased.
With regard to the reconstruction of terminals (airports), there has been done a lot of work. At present, Tajikistan has four international airports (Dushanbe, Qurghonteppa, Kulob, Khujand).
The other issue is to improve transport operations, raise the level of public service, strengthening transport communications of the country and step-by-step turn the motor roads and railroads network of the country into the interstate transition lines. With this purpose, there has been made changes in the appropriate structures (motor roads, airways, railroads) and there were put new tasks before them.
It is expected that implementation of this strategic goal will facilitate improvement of access to the market, increasing trade volume in the region, bringing down transport services costs and on this base will ensure rise in living standards of population.
Food security is among priority strategic goals of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan. With regard to this, in order to achieve those goals, which facilitate improvement of the living standards of population of the country, a great number of measures are being taken. Agriculture production development has been defined as the important factor of food security of the country.
With this aim, proper use of a land, land improvement and its productivity, export of fruits and vegetables are of priority tasks. In this direction the appropriate ministries and agencies and employees of the field have been entrusted with the main work. But its implementation has many sides, which requires foreign cooperation. In particular, construction of industrial enterprises, growing new varieties of plants, destructive insects control, gardening, viticulture and farming development and so on, import of agricultural machinery are the direction that could be carried out in cooperation with developed countries. Its outcome on the whole should be production of agricultural products to a required volume. This point was clearly mentioned by the Head of state while addressing the Parliament of the country on 25 April 2008: “we could ensure food security only when will more and more raise domestic agricultural production and will be less dependent from exported foodstuffs.” Actually, in most cases ensuring food security of the country depends on productivity and sustainability of agricultural development. Therefore, this sector, being a driving sector of Tajikistan’s economy, provides 21-21% of GDP.
In this regard, the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan has adopted a number of programmes in the sphere of agriculture that the most accepted one is “Agricultural reform Programme of the Republic of Tajikistan for the period of 2012-2020”, which is aimed at achieving this goal.
The Republic of Tajikistan since gaining state independence has been facing with difficulties that inherited from the Soviet period. Moreover, the country was involved in an imposed civil war, only economic damage of which was 10 billion US dollars. In line with that, after the collapse of the Soviet Union also the unified economic system of that country fell apart, which presented many economic and social hardships for Tajikistan. Such hardships covered all spheres of country’s economy, in particular energy, industry, transport, agriculture and other spheres. After the safeguarding peace and stability, the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan had to deal with the issue of ensuring sustainable economic development of the country. Therefore, the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan for the further development of the country has defined strategic goals of stable development of Tajikistan’s economy, including ensuring energy independence, break in the communication deadlock, food security and acceleration industrialization of the country.
Acceleration industrialization of the country
To achieve this objective the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan takes to the strictly control the implementation of approved sectorial programs and investment projects
Hence, at this moment the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan
strengthens their activities in attracting direct investments, construction of new manufacturing enterprises, and rehabilitation of idle enterprises and creation of new jobs.
The import substitution measures made it possible to supply the population with the locally produced basic food products, household devices and construction materials and to reduce the import of food products by almost 3 billion TJS or by 31 % during the last three years.