The Feast of Sada is also one of the ancient festivals of the Aryan peoples. The essence of the Sada Holiday is the victory of light over light, warm over cold and good over evil, and the people celebrate it by lighting large bonfires.
Every year, Sada is celebrated on the 10th day of the month of Bahman (11th month of the solar calendar), which is equal to January 30 according to the chronology of the birth of Christ.
The main purpose of the Sada Holiday is to respect light and illumination and warmth. In empirical stories, it is said that by kindling fire, peoples called for spring and warmth and light. The purpose of the people in its celebration is considered to be the beginning of preparation for fieldwork and gardening.
Sada is a celebration for young people and adults, women and men, and all citizens in general. It did not and does not belong to any religion.
According to the interpretation of the term "Sada" in historical and literatural sources, various opinions are mentioned. In particular, the most common folk description is the following: "Sada" is taken from the number one hundred (100) and means fifty days and fifty nights before the Nowruz. But according to historians, the term "Sada" comes from the word "sand" from Avesta, which means appearance and becoming a reality.
This holiday is a memory of the period of the Aryans, which in historical and artistic sources is attributed to the historical hero Khushang. In particular, Abulkosim Firdavsi in his “Shahname” says about the foundation of the Sada Holiday that once Shah Khushang went hunting with his relatives and saw a long and dark-colored snake in the mountains. Khushang picked up a large stone and threw it in the direction of the snake, The snake ran away, but this stone hit another, a spark occured and all the dry grass were burned out. Until then, the people did not know the method of kindling fire. Khushang and his relatives rejoiced in the secret of kindling fire and considered it a divine blessing. Shah Khushang thanked God that He had revealed the secret of kindling the fire to the people and returned to his city to celebrate this event.
That night he made a mighty blaze, he stood
Around it with his men and held the feast
Called Sada; that bright festival remaineth
As his memorial, and may earth see
More royal benefactors like to him.
(A.G.Warner, E.Warner. The “Shahnama” of Firdausi)
The Feast of Sada was well known starting from Aryans to the period of the Ghaznavids and Seljuks and in some regions before the Mongol conquests. In the courtyard and among the people it was celebrated along with the Nowruz, Mehrgon. After the XII-XIII centuries. under the influence of theologians, the celebration of the Sada was canceled by the Shahs and it turned into a national holiday and has reached our days in the form of festivities.
The description of the Sada Holiday in the period of Samanid and Ghaznavid rule can be seen in historical and artistic works, especially in the Qasidas.
On the initiative of the Leader of the nation, Founder of Peace and National Unity, President of the Republic of Tajikistan, Emomali Rahmon, Sada Holiday in our country is officially celebrated annually on January 30. The Republic of Tajikistan is the only country in which the Mehrgon and Sada holidays have certain days of celebration.